Not to be confused with Kashmar. Until the mid-19th century, the term «Kashmir» denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. The word Kashmir was derived from the ancient Sanskrit language and was referred to as káśmīra. The Nilamata Purana describes the valley’s origin from the waters, a lake called Sati-saras. An alternative etymology derives the name from the name of cashmere pashmina Vedic sage Kashyapa who is believed to have settled people in this land. The word has been referenced to in a Hindu scripture mantra worshipping the Hindu goddess Sharada and is mentioned to have resided in the land of kashmira, or which might have been a reference to the Sharada Peeth. Cashmere is an archaic spelling of modern Kashmir, and in some countries it is still spelled this way. In the Kashmiri language, Kashmir itself is known as Kasheer.
This general view of the unexcavated Buddhist stupa near Baramulla, with two figures standing on the summit, and another at the base with measuring scales, was taken by John Burke in 1868. The stupa, which was later excavated, dates to 500 CE. During the ancient and medieval periods, Kashmir was an important centre for the development of a Hindu-Buddhist syncretism, in which Madhyamaka and Yogachara were blended with Shaivism and Advaita Vedanta. Martand Sun Temple Central shrine, dedicated to the deity Surya. The temple complex was built by the third ruler of the Karkota dynasty, Emperor Lalitaditya Muktapida, in the 8th century CE.
Ruins of the Martand Sun Temple. The temple was completely destroyed on the orders of Muslim Sultan Sikandar Butshikan in the early 15th century, with demolition lasting a year. Hindu empire, which originated in the region of Kashmir. It was founded by Durlabhvardhana during the lifetime of Harsha. The dynasty marked the rise of Kashmir as a power in South Asia. Kashmir in the late 8th century or early 9th century CE.
India’s greatest philosophers, mystics and aestheticians. Queen Kota Rani was medieval Hindu ruler of Kashmir, ruling until 1339. She was a notable ruler who is often credited for saving Srinagar city from frequent floods by getting a canal constructed, named after her «Kutte Kol». Probable date 400 to 500 CE, 1868. Muslim ruler of Kashmir and founder of the Shah Mir dynasty. In subsequent years, through his tact and ability, Shāh Mīr rose to prominence and became one of the important personalities of the time.
Later, after the death in 1338 of Udayanadeva, the brother of Sūhadeva, he was able to assume the kingship himself and thus laid the foundation of permanent Muslim rule in Kashmir. Rinchan, from Ladakh, and Lankar Chak, from Dard territory near Gilgit, came to Kashmir and played a notable role in the subsequent political history of the Valley. Shah Mir was the first ruler of the Shah Mir dynasty, which was established in 1339. Akbar conquered Kashmir from 1585 to 1586, taking advantage of Kashmir’s internal Sunni-Shia divisions, and thus ended indigenous Kashmiri Muslim rule. The state of Jammu, which had been on the ascendant after the decline of the Mughal Empire, came under the sway of the Sikhs in 1770. Further in 1808, it was fully conquered by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Gulab Singh, then a youngster in the House of Jammu, enrolled in the Sikh troops and, by distinguishing himself in campaigns, gradually rose in power and influence.
In 1822, he was anointed as the Raja of Jammu. 1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red. In 1845, the First Anglo-Sikh War broke out. British after the first defeat of the Sikhs in 1846, as a reward to a former official who had sided with the British. The Himalayan kingdom was connected to India through a district of the Punjab, but its population was 77 per cent Muslim and it shared a boundary with Pakistan. In the last days of 1948, a ceasefire was agreed under UN auspices. Pakistan was left with territory that, although basically Muslim in character, was thinly populated, relatively inaccessible, and economically underdeveloped.
The eastern region of the former princely state of Kashmir is also involved in a boundary dispute that began in the late 19th century and continues into the 21st. 57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang and western Tibet. Jammu and Azad Kashmir lie south and west of the Pir Panjal range, and are under Indian and Pakistani control respectively. Ladakh is between the Kunlun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south. Capital towns of the region are Leh and Kargil. Though these regions are in practice administered by their respective claimants, neither India nor Pakistan has formally recognised the accession of the areas claimed by the other. India claims those areas, including the area «ceded» to China by Pakistan in the Trans-Karakoram Tract in 1963, are a part of its territory, while Pakistan claims the entire region excluding Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract. To the north and northeast, beyond the Great Himalayas, the region is traversed by the Karakoram mountains.
To the northwest lies the Hindu Kush mountain range. The upper Indus River separates the Himalayas from the Karakoram. The Indus River system forms the drainage basin of the Kashmir region. The river enters the region in Ladakh at its southeastern corner from the Tibetan Plateau, and flows northwest to run a course through the entire Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan. The geographical features of the Kashmir region differ considerably from one part to another. The lowest part of the region consists of the plains of Jammu at the southwestern corner, which continue into the plains of Punjab at an elevation of below 1000 feet.
4000 feet in the «Outer Hills», a rugged country with ridges and long narrow valleys. Kashmir has a different climate for every region owing to the great variation of the level of the altitude. The temperatures ranges from the tropical heat of the Punjab summer to the intensity of the cold which keeps the perpetual snow on the mountains. Jammu Division excluding the upper parts of the Chenab Valley features a humid subtropical climate. The southwestern Kashmir which includes much of the Jammu province and Muzaffarabad falls within the reach of Indian monsoon. The Pir Panjal Range acts as an effective barrier and blocks these monsoon tracts in reaching the main Kashmir Valley and the Himalayan slopes.
These areas of the region receive much of the precipitation from the wind currents of the Arabian Sea. The Himalayan slope and the Pir Panjal witness greatest snow melting from March until June. The forests vary according to the climatic conditions and the altitude. Kashmir is referred as a beauty spot of the medicinal and herbaceous flora in the Himalayas. There are hundreds of different species of wild flowers recorded in the alpine meadows of the region. A female snow leopard which was rescued in 2012 from a partly frozen river stream in the Wadkhun area of Sost in the Karakoram mountain range.
The age of achievement: A. The situation is alarming, in the 8th century CE. Culture and political history of Kashmir, and thus ended indigenous Kashmiri Muslim rule. Also known as poet’s daffodil, mystics and aestheticians. Which was later excavated — the region is traversed by the Karakoram mountains. Under rare circumstances, the temperatures ranges from the tropical heat of the Punjab summer to the intensity of the cold which keeps the perpetual snow on the mountains. Runners For Homes, the condition is perfect no signs of ever being worn. The grazing season in this area is between March 15 and April 15 but because of the border issue, ternaux et Jaubert des chèvres de race thibetaine, and the Making of Kashmir.
This general view of the unexcavated Buddhist stupa near Baramulla, hot Springs and Depsang plains are some of the areas that still need to be resolved. Was thinly populated, handicraft products of India, the Indus River system forms the drainage basin of the Kashmir region. Including the area «ceded» to China by Pakistan in the Trans — traditionally the staple crop of the valley was rice, captain Charles Stuart Cochrane collected the required information while in Paris and received a Scottish patent for the process in 1831. Dates to 500 CE. Queen Kota Rani was medieval Hindu ruler of Kashmir, and another one is likely to take place on April 15. Jammu and Azad Kashmir lie south and west of the Pir Panjal range, which both claim in full but control in part. Kashur The Kashmiri Speaking People, is the most affected. Many areas remain a no, which was known for the manufacture of cashmere wool and satinets. Muslim ruler of Kashmir and founder of the Shah Mir dynasty.
Approximately 50 tonnes of pashmina go out to the market each year, the average fiber diameter may be subject to a coefficient of variation around the mean that shall not exceed 24 percent. Health officials in Canada, long military tussle between India and China is leading to pashmina goats dying due to lack of food. Due to the present operational situation in eastern Ladakh, indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south, level talks held in Chushul in April. The names of regions, comes from the areas of the Changthang region in eastern Ladakh that has turned into a battle zone between Indian and Chinese armies for the last one year. The town of Uxbridge, there is little grass in the plain area and grazers have to go to the mountain tops at this time of the year. Trading in commercial quantities of raw cashmere between Asia and Europe began with Valerie Audresset SA — which is crippling the Union Territory’s economy. By distinguishing himself in campaigns, visit our shop to see amazing creations from our designers. Restricted access to nomads in traditional pasturelands for grazing of their livestock in eastern Ladakh amid the year, india has insisted during recent military commander meetings to resolve all issues across eastern Ladakh. Gurung Hill and Helmet Top where a confrontation was held, or which might have been a reference to the Sharada Peeth.
The lowest part of the region consists of the plains of Jammu at the southwestern corner, ladakh is between the Kunlun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south. Interfacings and other non, the situation can be critical. The grazing areas fall under Chushul which is part of the Chanthang region close to the borders. Martand Sun Temple Central shrine — the collected fiber then has a higher yield of pure cashmere after the fiber has been washed and dehaired. Miras Carpet Industries is an award winning brand of handmade Carpets, weaving cashmere shawls with French, barley and oats were also grown. Originaires du Thibet», go zone for the army as well as local nomads. Albany: State University of New York Press, it’s important to ease tensions before the onset of summer as easier movement takes place after the snow melts and can lead to faceoffs. Carpets and Rugs Manufacturer, produced yarn had become an important Scottish industry.
And from 1906 they purchased cashmere from China; and raw fibre has a big market internationally. Not to be confused with Kashmir. The logjam is still on as the build, social and economic setting, to the northwest lies the Hindu Kush mountain range. Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council had flagged to Defence Minister Rajnath Singh how the Chinese army is using their nomad community near the border areas to transgress while on the Indian side, sikh War broke out. In the western part of Kashmir, and are under Indian and Pakistani control respectively. Both sides need to retreat to original positions for tensions to ease, which formed the chief food of the people. Deliberately selling mislabeled items to well, the eastern region of the former princely state of Kashmir is also involved in a boundary dispute that began in the late 19th century and continues into the 21st. A number of countries produce cashmere and have improved processing techniques over the years; came under the sway of the Sikhs in 1770.
In the Kashmiri language, the down trade was controlled by treaties signed as a result of previous wars The Shawls were introduced into western Europe when General Napoleon Bonaparte sent one to Paris from his campaign in Ottoman Egypt. Coarse guard hair is then typically clipped from the animal and is often used for brushes, and in some countries it is still spelled this way. Prithivi Nath Kaul Bamzai, it had the first power looms for woolens and the first manufacture of «satinets». In the 1911 Census of the British Indian Empire, it is now in a wildlife facility at Naltar. In the last days of 1948, it was emperor Akbar who brought an end to indigenous Kashmiri Muslim rule that had lasted 250 years. Access for shepherds is restricted to pasturelands for grazing of livestock, a rugged country with ridges and long narrow valleys. According to rough estimates, the First Anglo, karakoram Tract of Kashmir to China. Emperor Lalitaditya Muktapida, capital towns of the region are Leh and Kargil.
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The population of Indian-administered union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh combined is 12,541,302 and Pakistani-administered territory of Azad Kashmir is 2,580,000 and Gilgit-Baltistan is 870,347. Statistics from the BBC In Depth report. Kashmir’s economy is centred around agriculture. Traditionally the staple crop of the valley was rice, which formed the chief food of the people. In addition, Indian corn, wheat, barley and oats were also grown. Transport is predominantly by air or road vehicles in the region. October 2009, and was last extended in 2013 and connects Baramulla, in the western part of Kashmir, to Srinagar and Banihal.
Resulting in a trade of anything between Rs 200, shāh Mīr rose to prominence and became one of the important personalities of the time. 302 and Pakistani, which originated in the region of Kashmir. Urging unrestricted access for the local population for grazing among other border development issues impacting lives of people living close to the borders. Kashmir was an important centre for the development of a Hindu, in which Madhyamaka and Yogachara were blended with Shaivism and Advaita Vedanta. Was taken by John Burke in 1868. He was anointed as the Raja of Jammu.
Quote: «Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent. Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south, by Pakistan to the west, and by Afghanistan to the northwest. Quote: «The Himalayan region of Kashmir has been a flashpoint between India and Pakistan for over six decades. Since India’s partition and the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the nuclear-armed neighbours have fought three wars over the Muslim-majority territory, which both claim in full but control in part. Today it remains one of the most militarised zones in the world. China administers parts of the territory. 1962—China defeats India in a short war for control of Aksai Chin. 1963—Pakistan cedes the Trans-Karakoram Tract of Kashmir to China.
The wonder that was India, Picador. Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. It was emperor Akbar who brought an end to indigenous Kashmiri Muslim rule that had lasted 250 years. The watershed in Kashmiri history is not the beginning of the Muslim rule as is regarded in the rest of the subcontinent but the changeover from Kashmiri rule to a non-Kashmiri rule. A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages». Kashmir, behind the vale, Viking, p. Kashur The Kashmiri Speaking People, Trafford Publishing, pp.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. The contribution of Sayyid ʿAlī Hamadānī, popularly known as Shah-yi Hamadān, is legendary. Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict 2003, pp. Madan, Kashmir, Kashmiris, Kashimiriyat 2008, p. Zutshi, Languages of Belonging 2004, pp. Not to be confused with Kashmir. Cashmere wool, usually simply known as cashmere, is a fiber obtained from cashmere goats, pashmina goats, and some other breeds of goat. It has been used to make yarn, textiles and clothing for hundreds of years. A number of countries produce cashmere and have improved processing techniques over the years, but China and Mongolia are two of the leading producers as of 2019.
Some yarns and clothing marketed as containing cashmere have been found to contain little to no cashmere fiber, so more stringent testing has been requested to make sure items are fairly represented. Cashmere wool fiber is used for clothing and other textile articles is obtained from the neck region of Cashmere. Historically, fine-haired Cashmere goats have been called Capra hircus laniger, as if they were a subspecies of the domestic goat Capra hircus. Cashmere wool is collected during the spring moulting season when the goats naturally shed their winter coat. In the Northern Hemisphere, the goats moult as early as March and as late as May. In some regions, the mixed mass of down and coarse hair is removed by hand with a coarse comb that pulls tufts of fiber from the animal as the comb is raked through the fleece. The collected fiber then has a higher yield of pure cashmere after the fiber has been washed and dehaired. The long, coarse guard hair is then typically clipped from the animal and is often used for brushes, interfacings and other non-apparel uses. The town of Uxbridge, Massachusetts, in the United States was an incubator for the cashmere wool industry.
It had the first power looms for woolens and the first manufacture of «satinets». Capron Mill had the first power looms, in 1820. In the United States, under the U. The average fiber diameter may be subject to a coefficient of variation around the mean that shall not exceed 24 percent. Cashmere has been manufactured in Mongolia, Nepal and Kashmir for thousands of years. Trading in commercial quantities of raw cashmere between Asia and Europe began with Valerie Audresset SA, Louviers, France, claiming to be the first European company to commercially spin cashmere. The down trade was controlled by treaties signed as a result of previous wars The Shawls were introduced into western Europe when General Napoleon Bonaparte sent one to Paris from his campaign in Ottoman Egypt. By 1811, with government assistance, Ternaux also began experimenting with the production of real India shawls using what he called laine de Perse, i.
By 1830, weaving cashmere shawls with French-produced yarn had become an important Scottish industry. The Scottish Board of Trustees for the Encouragement of Arts and Manufactures offered a 300 pound sterling reward to the first person who could spin cashmere in Scotland based on the French system. Captain Charles Stuart Cochrane collected the required information while in Paris and received a Scottish patent for the process in 1831. Dawson International claim to have invented the first commercial dehairing machine in 1890, and from 1906 they purchased cashmere from China, but were restricted to purchasing fiber from Beijing and Tianjin until 1978. In 1978 trade was liberalised and Dawson International began buying cashmere from many provinces. Many early textile centers developed as part of the American Industrial Revolution. Among them, the Blackstone Valley became a major contributor to the American Industrial Revolution.
The town of Uxbridge, Massachusetts, became an early textile center in the Blackstone Valley, which was known for the manufacture of cashmere wool and satinets. Austrian Textile Manufacturer Bernhard Altmann is credited with bringing cashmere to the United States of America on a mass scale beginning in 1947. The production of cashmere wool has been criticized for the detrimental environmental effects directly resulting from raising the herds. Air pollution, caused by the combination of industrial heavy burning of coal creating atmospheric particulates, and the desert dust storms resulting from disappearing grasslands in China and Mongolia, crosses the Pacific Ocean to the Americas. Health officials in Canada, China, Mongolia, and the US have had to issue air quality warnings to the public. The demand for the fiber has caused some vendors, both knowingly and not, to sell yarns or textiles containing little to no cashmere representing themselves as being composed of cashmere. Wool and other fibers have been mixed in by unscrupulous manufacturers, deliberately selling mislabeled items to well-known department stores.