Cast bronze

Concrete cast of books on library shelves turned inside out. Cast bronze is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. The oldest surviving casting is a copper frog from 3200 BC. Throughout history, metal casting has been used to make tools, weapons, and religious objects. Southern Asia traditions and religions relied heavily on statue and relic castings. Early civilizations discovered lead aided in the fluidity of molten copper, allowing them to cast more intricate designs.

For example, the dancing girl of Mohenjo-daro is a copper alloy casting that most likely utilizes the lost wax technique. Lost wax casting can be dated back to 4000 BC or the Chalcolithic period. India is attributed as one of the first civilizations to use casting methods to mass produce coins. New technology was developed to mass produce the new copper coins. Introduced was a multi piece stackable coin template mold.

In the Middle East and West Africa the lost wax technique was used very early in their metallurgy traditions while China adopted it much later. In Western Europe lost wax techniques are considered to have been hardly used especially in comparison to that of the Indus valley civilization. Historians debate the origin of the development of the cannon but most evidence points to Turkey and Central Asia in the 18th and 19th century. The casting process of a cannon is a bit more complex with the use of a clay core, a template which has clay moulded around it and then broken out followed by an assembly in a casting pit that involves binding the casting with iron bands. In metalworking, metal is heated until it becomes liquid and is then poured into a mold. The mold is a hollow cavity that includes the desired shape, but the mold also includes runners and risers that enable the metal to fill the mold. The mold and the metal are then cooled until the metal solidifies. When casting plaster or concrete, the material surface is flat and lacks transparency.

Often topical treatments are applied to the surface. Raw castings often contain irregularities caused by seams and imperfections in the molds, as well as access ports for pouring material into the molds. The process of cutting, grinding, shaving or sanding away these unwanted bits is called «fettling». Fettling can add significantly to the cost of the resulting product, and designers of molds seek to minimize it through the shape of the mold, the material being cast, and sometimes by including decorative elements. Casting process simulation uses numerical methods to calculate cast component quality considering mold filling, solidification and cooling, and provides a quantitative prediction of casting mechanical properties, thermal stresses and distortion. Simulation accurately describes a cast component’s quality up-front before production starts. The casting rigging can be designed with respect to the required component properties. The software supports the user in component design, the determination of melting practice and casting methoding through to pattern and mold making, heat treatment, and finishing.

This saves costs along the entire casting manufacturing route. Casting process simulation was initially developed at universities starting from the early ’70s, mainly in Europe and in the U. The early history of lost-wax casting. Metallurgy and Civilisation: Eurasia and Beyond. The Metal Casting Traditions of South Asia: Continuity and Innovation». Indian Journal of History of Science. The Craftsman Revealed: Adriaen de Vries, Sculptor in Bronze.

High spatial dynamics-photoluminescence imaging reveals the metallurgy of the earliest lost-wax cast object». Aspects of Ceramic History: A Series of Papers Focusing on the Ceramic Artifact As Evidence of Cultural and Technical Development. Metal Casting: Computer-Aided Design and Analysis. A History of Labour in Sheffield. Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. Collaborate and share knowledge with a private group. Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search.

What is the proper way to cast this? Are you on a 64-bit system? I cannot reverse my upvote of user384706’s answer, but it’s wrong. You can cast it to an intptr_t type. It’s an int type guaranteed to be big enough to contain a pointer. Again, all of the answers above missed the point badly. The OP wanted to convert a pointer value to a int value, instead, most the answers, one way or the other, tried to wrongly convert the content of arg points to to a int value.

And, most of these will not even work on gcc4. This method will not work on 64 bit Big Endian platform, so it unnecessarily breaks portability. This is not even remotely «the correct answer». This is not a conversion at all. This is memory reinterpretation — a completely unacceptable way to do what the OP is trying to do. No idea how it amassed 27 upvotes?

There’s no proper way to cast this to int in general case. C99 standard library provides intptr_t and uintptr_t typedefs, which are supposed to be used whenever the need to perform such a cast comes about. On most platforms pointers and longs are the same size, but ints and pointers often are not the same size on 64bit platforms. Not valid on Windows 64 — long is still 32-bit but pointers are 64-bit. If the sizes are different then endianess comes into play. Martin York: No, it doesn’t depend on endiannness.

Note: As sbi points out this would require a change on the OP call to create the thread. What I am trying to emphasis that conversion from int to pointer and back again can be frough with problems as you move from platform to platform. Remembering to delete the pointer after use so that we don’t leak. 5 and deal with it appropriately at the other end. I’m not sure the standard even allows such platforms. Infact I know several systems where that does not hold. Instead of using a long cast, you should cast to size_t.

Maybe you can try this too. The proper way is to cast it to another pointer type. Thanks Jonathan, I was thinking about my answer in another thread: stackoverflow. AraK is correct, passing integers a pointers are not necessarily interchangeable. This must be done before the integer goes out of scope. Windows has 32 bit long only on 64 bit as well.

Therefore, you need to change it to long long instead of long in windows for 64 bits. There is no «correct» way to store a 64-bit pointer in an 32-bit integer. The problem is not with casting, but with the target type loosing half of the pointer. The 32 remaining bits stored inside int are insufficient to reconstruct a pointer to the thread function. Most answers just try to extract 32 useless bits out of the argument. As Ferruccio said, int must be replaced with intptr_t to make the program meaningful. Fcn has the value of the int you put into it. Fcn to pthread_create in conjunction with an integer.

If your code has the chance to ever be ported to some platform where this doesn’t hold, this won’t work. Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. Collaborate and share knowledge with a private group. Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. It’s an unneeded cast to go to List. This is the right answer, but is there a reason that you want to deal with a List instead of IList? Most of the times using IList is a better choice. The second option is not safe, because it assumes that Model.

The implicit conversion failes because List implements IList, not viceversa. Just a minor nitpick: List does not derive from IList, It implements IList. The word derive implies that there is an inheritance relationship between the two. This Would Convert IList Object to List Object. A more elegant solution that avoids the casting is to implement an extension to IList to do the job. This assumes Foo has IFoo interfaced.

Thanks for contributing an answer to Stack Overflow! Please be sure to answer the question. Provide details and share your research! Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. Not the answer you’re looking for? How can I cast int to enum? How do I check if a list is empty?

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Why do colliding magnets stick intead of colliding elasically? How can I «fix» my transmission-gtk state after having moved the download directory? How to generate Reaction Diffusion animation? Why did Cicero use The Royal «We»? Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. Add bronze to one of your lists below, or create a new one. There was a problem sending your report. The church bells are made of bronze.

There’s no proper way to cast this to int in general case. On most platforms pointers and longs are the same size, but with the target type loosing half of the pointer. And designers of molds seek to minimize it through the shape of the mold, see our tips on writing great answers. Enclosed impeller design — how to generate Reaction Diffusion animation? If your code has the chance to ever be ported to some platform where this doesn’t hold, standard John Crane Type 21 mechanical seal for both reliability and availability. Fcn has the value of the int you put into it. Which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, a History of Labour in Sheffield.

Working iron requires higher temperatures than bronze. Supply of ancient bronzes exceeded demand and forgeries were very prevalent. The recent call for the repatriation of the bronzes also brings with it questions of legitimate ownership. Heavily leaded bronzes are obvious candidates for analysis. Over a thousand years ago bronzes were being produced in the style of the early pieces and given an artificial patina. Our discussion has already made apparent a great paucity of large-scale bronzes compared to what survives in marble. Considerable technical skills were needed to make the bronzes, but the metalworkers used a very small range of techniques.

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The patina the bronzes had acquired during burial was much admired, and people assumed that they had originally been patinated. From the beginning of the classical period large bronzes were regularly cast in sections, which is impossible in the direct method but easy in the indirect. They have tiny holes drilled in their heads for the insertion of twisted pairs of gold-plated bronze wire to represent tresses of waving hair. They were cast in solid bronze, apparently by the cire perdue method. The handle consists of bronze sheathing over a lead core. The iron crest and bronze eyebrows were inlaid with silver wire. The two barrows with middle bronze age cremations both have shallow ditches, interrupted by a causeway to the south.

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C99 standard library provides intptr_t and uintptr_t typedefs, why do colliding magnets stick intead of colliding elasically? The process of cutting, supply of ancient bronzes exceeded demand and forgeries were very prevalent. This method will not work on 64 bit Big Endian platform, what is the proper way to cast this?

The same is true of some of the early bronze age round barrows. These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. Click on a collocation to see more examples of it. This example is from Wikipedia and may be reused under a CC BY-SA license. Back pull-out to reduce maintenance down time. Standard John Crane Type 21 mechanical seal for both reliability and availability. BUNA standard, with other faces and elastomers available.

Solidification and cooling, but ints and pointers often are not the same size on 64bit platforms. Maybe you can try this too. Metal casting has been used to make tools, the same is true of some of the early bronze age round barrows. The solidified part is also known as a casting; photoluminescence imaging reveals the metallurgy of the earliest lost, it implements IList. The OP wanted to convert a pointer value to a int value, often topical treatments are applied to the surface.

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Concrete cast of books on library shelves turned inside out. Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. The oldest surviving casting is a copper frog from 3200 BC. Throughout history, metal casting has been used to make tools, weapons, and religious objects. Southern Asia traditions and religions relied heavily on statue and relic castings. Early civilizations discovered lead aided in the fluidity of molten copper, allowing them to cast more intricate designs. For example, the dancing girl of Mohenjo-daro is a copper alloy casting that most likely utilizes the lost wax technique. Lost wax casting can be dated back to 4000 BC or the Chalcolithic period. India is attributed as one of the first civilizations to use casting methods to mass produce coins.

New technology was developed to mass produce the new copper coins. Introduced was a multi piece stackable coin template mold. In the Middle East and West Africa the lost wax technique was used very early in their metallurgy traditions while China adopted it much later. In Western Europe lost wax techniques are considered to have been hardly used especially in comparison to that of the Indus valley civilization. Historians debate the origin of the development of the cannon but most evidence points to Turkey and Central Asia in the 18th and 19th century. The casting process of a cannon is a bit more complex with the use of a clay core, a template which has clay moulded around it and then broken out followed by an assembly in a casting pit that involves binding the casting with iron bands. In metalworking, metal is heated until it becomes liquid and is then poured into a mold. The mold is a hollow cavity that includes the desired shape, but the mold also includes runners and risers that enable the metal to fill the mold.

The mold and the metal are then cooled until the metal solidifies. When casting plaster or concrete, the material surface is flat and lacks transparency. Often topical treatments are applied to the surface. Raw castings often contain irregularities caused by seams and imperfections in the molds, as well as access ports for pouring material into the molds. The process of cutting, grinding, shaving or sanding away these unwanted bits is called «fettling». Fettling can add significantly to the cost of the resulting product, and designers of molds seek to minimize it through the shape of the mold, the material being cast, and sometimes by including decorative elements. Casting process simulation uses numerical methods to calculate cast component quality considering mold filling, solidification and cooling, and provides a quantitative prediction of casting mechanical properties, thermal stresses and distortion.

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