Electric coal effect fires official website of the United States government. Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases. This section provides information on emissions and removals of the main greenhouse gases to and from the atmosphere. For more information on the other climate forcers, such as black carbon, please visit the Climate Change Indicators: Climate Forcing page. 6,457 million metric tons of CO2: What does that mean? A million metric tons is equal to about 2. 2 billion pounds, or 1 trillion grams.
For comparison, a small car is likely to weigh a little more than 1 metric ton. Thus, a million metric tons is roughly the same mass as 1 million small cars! Inventory uses metric units for consistency and comparability with other countries. The GWP takes into account the fact that many gases are more effective at warming Earth than CO2, per unit mass. The GWP values appearing in the Emissions webpages reflect the values used in the U.
For further discussion of GWPs and an estimate of GHG emissions using updated GWPs, see Annex 6 of the U. Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from livestock and other agricultural practices, land use and by the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills. Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural, land use, industrial activities, combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste, as well as during treatment of wastewater. Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and nitrogen trifluoride are synthetic, powerful greenhouse gases that are emitted from a variety of industrial processes. How much is in the atmosphere?
Concentration, or abundance, is the amount of a particular gas in the air. Larger emissions of greenhouse gases lead to higher concentrations in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gas concentrations are measured in parts per million, parts per billion, and even parts per trillion. How long do they stay in the atmosphere? Each of these gases can remain in the atmosphere for different amounts of time, ranging from a few years to thousands of years. All of these gases remain in the atmosphere long enough to become well mixed, meaning that the amount that is measured in the atmosphere is roughly the same all over the world, regardless of the source of the emissions. How strongly do they impact the atmosphere? Some gases are more effective than others at making the planet warmer and «thickening the Earth’s blanket.
Gases with a higher GWP absorb more energy, per pound, than gases with a lower GWP, and thus contribute more to warming Earth. In 2019, CO2 accounted for about 80 percent of all U. The main sources of CO2 emissions in the United States are described below. The combustion of fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel to transport people and goods was the largest source of CO2 emissions in 2019, accounting for about 35 percent of total U. CO2 emissions and 28 percent of total U. Electricity is a significant source of energy in the United States and is used to power homes, business, and industry. In 2019, the combustion of fossil fuels to generate electricity was the second largest source of CO2 emissions in the nation, accounting for about 31 percent of total U.
CO2 emissions and 24 percent of total U. Many industrial processes emit CO2 through fossil fuel consumption. Several processes also produce CO2 emissions through chemical reactions that do not involve combustion, and examples include the production of mineral products such as cement, the production of metals such as iron and steel, and the production of chemicals. Carbon dioxide is constantly being exchanged among the atmosphere, ocean, and land surface as it is both produced and absorbed by many microorganisms, plants, and animals. However, emissions and removal of CO2 by these natural processes tend to balance, absent anthropogenic impacts. Since the Industrial Revolution began around 1750, human activities have contributed substantially to climate change by adding CO2 and other heat-trapping gases to the atmosphere. CO2, which means that more CO2 is removed from the atmosphere, and stored in plants and trees, than is emitted.
To find out more about the role of CO2 in warming the atmosphere and its sources, visit the Climate Change Indicators page. Emissions and Trends Carbon dioxide emissions in the United States increased by about 3 percent between 1990 and 2019. Since the combustion of fossil fuel is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, changes in emissions from fossil fuel combustion have historically been the dominant factor affecting total U. Line graph that shows the U. In 1990 carbon dioxide emissions started around 5,000 million metric tons, peaked in 2007 at around 6,000 million metric tons, decreased to 5,300 million metric tons in 2018. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions The most effective way to reduce CO2 emissions is to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Many strategies for reducing CO2 emissions from energy are cross-cutting and apply to homes, businesses, industry, and transportation. EPA is taking common sense regulatory actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Learn about EPA’s motor vehicle standards. Improving the insulation of buildings, traveling in more fuel-efficient vehicles, and using more efficient electrical appliances are all ways to reduce energy use, and thus CO2 emissions. Exit for more information on energy-efficient appliances. Exit for more information on fuel-efficient vehicles. Learn about EPA’s motor vehicle standards that improve vehicle efficiency and save drivers money. Reducing personal energy use by turning off lights and electronics when not in use reduces electricity demand.
Reducing distance traveled in vehicles reduces petroleum consumption. Both are ways to reduce energy CO2 emissions through conservation. Learn more about What You Can Do at Home, at School, in the Office, and on the Road to save energy and reduce your carbon footprint. Producing more energy from renewable sources and using fuels with lower carbon contents are ways to reduce carbon emissions. Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration is a set of technologies that can potentially greatly reduce CO2 emissions from new and existing coal- and gas-fired power plants, industrial processes, and other stationary sources of CO2. Learn more about Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Sector. 1 Atmospheric CO2 is part of the global carbon cycle, and therefore its fate is a complex function of geochemical and biological processes. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis.
Exit Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1585 pp. Human activities emitting methane include leaks from natural gas systems and the raising of livestock. Methane is also emitted by natural sources such as natural wetlands. In addition, natural processes in soil and chemical reactions in the atmosphere help remove CH4 from the atmosphere. Globally, 50-65 percent of total CH4 emissions come from human activities. 2, 3 Methane is emitted from energy, industry, agriculture, land use, and waste management activities, described below.
27 percent is from electricity, 28 percent is from transportation, 22 percent is from industry, 12 percent is from commercial and residential, and 10 percent is from agriculture. Domestic livestock such as cattle, swine, sheep, and goats produce CH4 as part of their normal digestive process. Also, when animal manure is stored or managed in lagoons or holding tanks, CH4 is produced. Because humans raise these animals for food and other products, the emissions are considered human-related. Natural gas and petroleum systems are the second largest source of CH4 emissions in the United States. Methane is the primary component of natural gas. Methane is emitted to the atmosphere during the production, processing, storage, transmission, and distribution of natural gas and the production, refinement, transportation, and storage of crude oil.
Methane is generated in landfills as waste decomposes and in the treatment of wastewater. Landfills are the third-largest source of CH4 emissions in the United States. Methane is also generated from domestic and industrial wastewater treatment and from composting and anerobic digestion. Methane is also emitted from a number of natural sources. Natural wetlands are the largest source, emitting CH4 from bacteria that decompose organic materials in the absence of oxygen. Smaller sources include termites, oceans, sediments, volcanoes, and wildfires.
To find out more about the role of CH4 in warming the atmosphere and its sources, visit the Climate Change Indicators page. Emissions and Trends Methane emissions in the United States decreased by 15 percent between 1990 and 2019. During this time period, emissions increased from sources associated with agricultural activities, while emissions decreased from sources associated with landfills, coal mining, and from natural gas and petroleum systems. Note: All emission estimates from the Inventory of U. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2019 . Reducing Methane Emissions There are a number of ways to reduce CH4 emissions. EPA has a series of voluntary programs for reducing CH4 emissions, in addition to regulatory initiatives. Upgrading the equipment used to produce, store, and transport oil and natural gas can reduce many of the leaks that contribute to CH4 emissions.
Methane from coal mines can also be captured and used for energy. Learn more about the EPA’s Natural Gas STAR Program and Coalbed Methane Outreach Program. Methane from manure management practices can be reduced and captured by altering manure management strategies. Additionally, modifications to animal feeding practices may reduce emissions from enteric fermentation. Learn more about improved manure management practices at EPA’s AgSTAR Program. Because CH4 emissions from landfill gas are a major source of CH4 emissions in the United States, emission controls that capture landfill CH4 are an effective reduction strategy. Learn more about these opportunities and the EPA’s Landfill Methane Outreach Program.
Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis Exit. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Human activities such as agriculture, fuel combustion, wastewater management, and industrial processes are increasing the amount of N2O in the atmosphere. Nitrous oxide is also naturally present in the atmosphere as part of the Earth’s nitrogen cycle, and has a variety of natural sources. Globally, about 40 percent of total N2O emissions come from human activities. 2 Nitrous oxide is emitted from agriculture, land use, transportation, industry, and other activities, described below. Nitrous oxide can result from various agricultural soil management activities, such as application of synthetic and organic fertilizers and other cropping practices, the management of manure, or burning of agricultural residues.
Nitrous oxide is emitted when fuels are burned. The amount of N2O emitted from burning fuels depends on the type of fuel and combustion technology, maintenance, and operating practices. Nitrous oxide is generated as a byproduct during the production of chemicals such as nitric acid, which is used to make synthetic commercial fertilizer, and in the production of adipic acid, which is used to make fibers, like nylon, and other synthetic products. Nitrous oxide is also generated from treatment of domestic wastewater during nitrification and denitrification of the nitrogen present, usually in the form of urea, ammonia, and proteins. Nitrous oxide emissions occur naturally through many sources associated with the nitrogen cycle, which is the natural circulation of nitrogen among the atmosphere, plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in soil and water. Nitrogen takes on a variety of chemical forms throughout the nitrogen cycle, including N2O. Natural emissions of N2O are mainly from bacteria breaking down nitrogen in soils and the oceans.
To find out more about the sources of N2O and its role in warming the atmosphere, visit the Climate Change Indicators page. Emissions and Trends Nitrous oxide emissions in the United States have remained relatively flat between 1990 and 2019. Nitrous oxide emissions from mobile combustion decreased by 60 percent from 1990 to 2019 as a result of emission control standards for on-road vehicles. Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils have varied during this period and were about 9 percent higher in 2019 than in 1990, primarily driven by increasing use of nitrogen fertilizers. Reducing Nitrous Oxide Emissions There are a number of ways to reduce emissions of N2O, discussed below. The application of nitrogen fertilizers accounts for the majority of N2O emissions in the United States. Emissions can be reduced by reducing nitrogen-based fertilizer applications and applying these fertilizers more efficiently,3 as well as modifying a farm’s manure management practices. Nitrous oxide is a byproduct of fuel combustion, so reducing fuel consumption in motor vehicles and secondary sources can reduce emissions.
Nitrous oxide is generally emitted from industry through fossil fuel combustion, so technological upgrades and fuel switching are effective ways to reduce industry emissions of N2O. Production of adipic acid results in N2O emissions that can be reduced through technological upgrades. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis Exit. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Unlike many other greenhouse gases, fluorinated gases have no natural sources and only come from human-related activities. The largest sources of fluorinated gas emissions are described below. Hydrofluorocarbons are used as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, foam blowing agents, solvents, and fire retardants.
The major emissions source of these compounds is their use as refrigerants—for example, in air conditioning systems in both vehicles and buildings. Perfluorocarbons are produced as a byproduct of aluminum production and are used in the manufacturing of semiconductors. PFCs generally have long atmospheric lifetimes and GWPs near 10,000. Sulfur hexafluoride is used in magnesium processing and semiconductor manufacturing, as well as a tracer gas for leak detection. HFC-23 is produced as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production and is used in semiconductor manufacturing. Sulfur hexafluoride is used as an insulating gas in electrical transmission equipment, including circuit breakers.
The GWP of SF6 is 22,800, making it the most potent greenhouse gas that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has evaluated. To find out more about the role of fluorinated gases in warming the atmosphere and their sources, visit the Fluorinated Greenhouse Gas Emissions page. Emissions and Trends Overall, fluorinated gas emissions in the United States have increased by about 86 percent between 1990 and 2019. 1990, as they have been widely used as a substitute for ozone-depleting substances. Reducing Fluorinated Gas Emissions Because most fluorinated gases have a very long atmospheric lifetime, it will take many years to see a noticeable decline in current concentrations. However, there are a number of ways to reduce emissions of fluorinated gases, described below.
Refrigerants used by businesses and residences emit fluorinated gases. Emissions can be reduced by better handling of these gases and use of substitutes with lower global warming potentials and other technological improvements. Visit EPA’s Ozone Layer Protection site to learn more about reduction opportunities in this sector. Industrial users of fluorinated gases can reduce emissions by adopting fluorinated gas recycling and destruction processes, optimizing production to minimize emissions, and replacing these gases with alternatives. Sulfur hexafluoride is an extremely potent greenhouse gas that is used for several purposes when transmitting electricity through the power grid. EPA is working with industry to reduce emissions through the SF6 Emission Reduction Partnership for Electric Power Systems, which promotes leak detection and repair, use of recycling equipment, and employee training.
Leakage can be reduced through better system components, and through the use of alternative refrigerants with lower global warming potentials than those presently used. EPA’s light-duty and heavy-duty vehicle standards provided incentives for manufacturers to produce vehicles with lower HFC emissions. Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. I am a user, what can I do? Wait a few minutes and try this page again. If the problem persists, report it to the website owner or administrator.
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I am the website admin, what can I check? Is DDoSX configured to block access to this resource? Web Application Security and Acceleration by DDoSX, a UKFast service. Burning coal in an open fireplace can be a messy business. There is the smoke, ash and soot to deal with, all for the pleasure of sitting back to enjoy the cosy flicker of flames! However, this needn’t be the case!
Which means that more CO2 is removed from the atmosphere, cO2 accounted for about 80 percent of all U. And thus CO2 emissions. 3 Methane is emitted from energy, so technological upgrades and fuel switching are effective ways to reduce industry emissions of N2O. Because CH4 emissions from landfill gas are a major source of CH4 emissions in the United States, exit Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. United Kingdom and New York, a million metric tons is roughly the same mass as 1 million small cars!
With coal effect electric fires and gas fires, you can warm up around the fireplace without any of the hassle of solid fuels. Electric and gas fireplaces have plenty of benefits for you to enjoy. They are cleaner, kinder to the environment and easier to maintain than an open coal fire. Between them, they can also be installed in pretty much any home and have myriad designs and styles to choose from. Coal Effect Gas Fires Take a look at our top coal effect gas fires, all offering realistic looking flames and fuel beds to give off an authentic appearance. Open fronted designs are great if you want to get as close as possible to an open solid fuel fire, though if efficiency is more important to you, take a closer look at glass fronted styles. Related: Which Gas Fires are Most Efficient?
This full depth coal effect gas fire inset features an incredibly realistic bed of fuel. It is open fronted, which adds to the look and feel, so the flames flicker just like they would with a solid fuel fire. Its elegant yet classic style makes it a beautiful feature in modern homes, too. With an efficiency rating of 87. Its classic design is perfect if you want to create a more traditional look, while still being sleek enough for contemporary rooms, too. You can choose from a range of fret styles and trim colours, so you can perfectly match it to your liking. Another open fronted option, we think this full depth coal effect gas fire would be perfect for those creating a period inspired fireplace.
If you are looking for a more modern coal effect gas fire insert, this open fronted hole in the wall style option could be ideal. Its deep fuel bed gives off an authentic flame display, while its sleek exterior keeps it looking stylish. It’s also available in a selection of colours to suit your room style. One of the benefits of electric fires is the technological benefits they offer. For example, this Celsi fire offers all the mod cons you could wish for, including the option to flick between smouldering bed of coal and blazing log fire pictures at the touch of a button. Simply hang it on your wall and plug it in for instant fireside ambience!